Wednesday, August 20, 2008

Posts of Blog rachanakar

Posts of Blog rachanakar

ved prakash kee kitab : hindi kampyootari (6 – antim kisht)

Posted: 20 Aug 2008 03:36 AM CDT

pichhale ank se jari…

hindi kanpyootari

soochana praudyogikee ke

lokatantrik sarokara

ved prakash
ved prakasha

adhyay 8

parivardhit devanagari aur inskript kunjipatala

rashtriy ekata kee aur badhata kadama

hamara desh ek hai. hamari sanskritik virasat ek hai. is desh men bole jane vali bhinn-bhinn bhashaon ke 50% se adhik shabd ek saman hain. fir bhi yadi ek rajy ka nivasi doosare rajy men jae to bilakul ajanabi ho jata hai. isake viparit yoorop men alag-alag desh hain, unakee sanskritik virasat alag-alag hain. unakee bhashaon men pae jane vale shabd bhi saman nahin hain. fir bhi yoorop ke ek desh ka nivasi agar doosare desh men jata hai to bhasha se usaka aparichay, aatmiyata men badhak nahin banata.

isakee kya vajah hai?

isake anek karanon men se shayad sabase jyada mahatvapoorn karan hai lipi. yoorop kee sabhi bhashaon kee ek lipi- roman lipi unake ek doosare ke najadik aane aur paradeshi bhashaen sikhane ka karan banati hai. yoorop ka nivasi doosare yooropiy desh men ja kar bhi anajan nahin rahata kyonki vah lipi ke karan jagahon, bason, sadakon aadi ke nam pahachan leta hai aur thoda prayas karane par bhasha ka bhi kamachalaoo gyan hasil kar leta hai. isake viparit hamare ek rajy ka nivasi matr lipi ke bhed ke karan doosare rajy men ajanabi aur paraya ban jata hai. udaharan ke lie bengaloor men 'ramanagar' ke samane khada vyakti yah nahin jan pata ki vah 'ramanagar' ke samane khada hai. jabaki ramanagar shabd usaka parichit hai keval lipi ke karan vah paraya ho gaya hai.

aaj duniya sikudati ja rahi hai. log ek antararashtriy lipi kee bat karane lage hain. hamare svatantrata sainaniyon kee drishti se bhi yah bat chhupi nahin thi. unhonne is samasya par ganbhir vichar vimarsh kiya, isake itihas kee khoj kee. vibhinn lipiyon ka tulanatmak adhyayan kiya. isake natijon ne unhen sukhad aash‍chary se bhar diya. unhonne paya ki –

1. hamari kaee bhashaen ek hi lipi men likhi jati hain, jaise hindi, sanskrit, nepali, marathi aadi bhashaen devanagari lipi men likhi jati hain aur asamiya aur bangala bangala lipi men aur urdoo aur kashmiri arabi lipi men likhi jati hain.

2. kaee lipiyan alag hone ke bavajood bahut kuchh saman hi hain. jaise devanagari aur gujarati ya kannad aur telugoo lipiyan.

jab inhonne isaka karan khoja to paya ki aaj se takariban 2000 sal pahale hamari sabhi bhashaen ek hi lipi men likhi jati thin. yahan yah kahana aprasangik nahin hoga ki purane bharat men sanskrit ek bhasha thi aur us vaqat isake alava kaee aur bhashaen bhi maujood thin. aaj durbhagy se ve bhashaen nahin milatin parantu purane sahity men kabhi-kabhar unaka zikr aa jata hai, aachary kishori das vajapeyi ne apani vikhyat pustak 'hindi shabdanushasan' men sabit kiya hai ki bharat kee aadhunik bhashaen sanskrit se paida nahin hueen balki isake sath hi bole jane vali kaee doosari bhashaon se vikasit huee hain. lekin agar hamen purane bharat men ek hi bhasha hone ka bhram hota hai to isaka karan vibhinn bhashaon dvara ek hi lipi ka istemal karana hai. aisa bhi nahin hai ki us samay doosari lipiyan nahin thin. parantu us samay ke logon ne desh kee ekata ke lie yah zaroori samajha ki ek hi lipi apanaee jae. aur yah lipi thi- brahmi lipi.

do hazar sal ke betaratib vikas ne durbhagy se brahmi lipi ko 10 lipiyon men badal diya, jo hamari aadhunik lipiyan hain. hamare svatantrata sainaniyon ke man men aaya ki agar aaj se 2000 sal pahale is desh kee ek lipi ho sakati thi to aaj kyon nahin ho sakati.

unhonne tay kiya ki hamari ek rashtr lipi honi chahie. jo pahale apani lipi ke sath-sath is lipi men bhi samagri chhape aur bad men doosari lipiyan chhod kar ek hi lipi rah jae. gahan vichar vimarsh ke bad ve is natije par pahunche ki devanagari lipi hi hamari rashtr lipi ho sakati hai. rashtr lipi ke roop men yani bharat kee sabhi bhashaon jaise panjabi, gujarati, telugoo, tamil aadi kee lipi ke roop men devanagari ko apanae jane ke samarthakon sabhi bhashaon kee vibhootiyan shamil thin. jaise gujarati bhashi- mahatma gandhi, marathi bhashi- bal gangadhar tilak, panjabi bhashi- shahid bhagat sinh, bangala bhashi- sharadacharan mitra. par devanagari hi kyon? kyonki devanagari lipi ke ---

k. hindi, marathi aur nepali kee lipi hone ke karan is desh kee bahusankhyak janata is lipi se parichit hai.

kh. sanskrit kee lipi hone ke karan is desh ke paranparagat roop se padhe-likhe tabake is lipi se parichit hain.

g. kaee doosari lipiyan jaise gujarati, gurumukhi aadi lipiyan bhi devanagari se kafi milati hain. atah in bhashaon ko bolane vale log bhi devanagari se aparichit nahin hain.

gh. sabase mahatvapoorn yah ki vibhinn puravasheshon se pata chalata hai ki kannad aadi bhashaon ke tamr patr aadi devanagari lipi men likhe milate hain. yani yah pahale hi rashtr lipi rah chukee hai.

par isamen kuchh samasyaen bhi hain. vibhinn bhashaon men kuchh aisi dhvaniyan ya chihn vikasit ho gae hain jo hindi devanagari men nahin milate. to kya kiya jae.

vibhinn vidvanon ke sahayog se bharat sarakar ne nae chihn vikasit kar hindi devanagari ko badhaya taki yah bharat kee sabhi bhashaon kee dhvaniyon ko vyakt kar sake. ise parivardhit devanagari nam diya gaya. sarvapratham 1966 men bharat sarakar ke kendriy hindi nideshalay ne ise chhapaya aur vitarit kiya.

aajadi ke dauran devanagari lipi men kaee bhashaen chhapane ke kaee prayat‍n hue jinamen sharadacharan mitr kee patrika 'devanagar', baboo ramanand chatarji ka patr 'chaturbhashi' jisamen hindi, gujarati, marathi aur bangala ke lekh devanagari lipi men chhapa karate the; aazadi ke bad 1953 men hamare pahale rashtr pati do. rajendr prasad ke sanrakshan men 'devanagar' ka punarprakashan aaranbh huaa. isake atirikt gyanapith prakashan aur sahity akademi ne bhi bhinn bhashaon ke sahity ko devanagari men lane ka kam kiya. urdoo ka to sara sahity hi devanagari men chhapata hai. kendriy hindi nideshalay aur rajabhasha vibhag ne bhi aise kaee prayas kie.

par ye sab hindi kanpyootari kee kitab men kyon likha ja raha hai?

kyonki inskript kunjipatal men parivardhit devanagari ko taip karane yani bharat kee sabhi bhashaon kee dhvaniyon ko taip karane kee suvidha hai. isake lie hamen hindi ko vindoz eksapi men sakriy karate samay hindi tredishanal kunjipatal chunane ke sthan par devanagari-inskript kunji patal ko chunana chahie. (vindoz eksapi men hindi ko sakriy karane kee vidhi agale adhyay men di gaee hai)

aaie dekhen ki inhen kaise taip kiya ja sakata hai—

sanskrit aur vaidik sanskrit ke vishesh aksharon ko kaise taip karen—

sanskrit ke lie aavashyak kuchh akshar jo kabhi-kabhi upayog men lae jate hain, unhen nim‍nalikhit tarike se taip kiya ja sakata hai.

ॠ Alt aur shift dabakar ri taip karen

ॄ isakee matra taip karane ke lie Alt dabakar ri taip karen

lri Alt, ctrl, shift aur F ko ek sath dabaen laॄ Alt, ctrl, shift aur R ko ek sath dabaen

-a- Alt, Ctrl aur > ko ek sath dabaen

om Alt, ctrl, shift aur X ko ek sath dabaen

. Shift . ko ek sath dabaen

॰ shabdon ka sankshipt roop darshane ke lie Alt, Ctrl aur , ko ek sath dabaen

vaidik sanskrit ke balaghat darshane vale chihnon ke lie-

a bayan Alt dabakar ch taip karen

॓ bayan Alt dabakar z taip karen

॔ bayan Alt dabakar c taip karen

hindi ank taip karane ke lie-

jo ank taip karana ho Alt dabakar us ank ko taip karen, jaise-

‍‍1 Alt dabakar 1 taip karen

2 Alt dabakar 2 taip karen

3 Alt dabakar 3 taip karen

0 Alt dabakar 0 taip karen

kannad, telugoo aur tamil ke aksharon ke lie –

kannad telugoo tamil devanagari taip kunjiyan

ai ai ai ai (hrisv 'e') shift dabakar z taip karen

o o o o (hrisv 'e' kee matra) z taip karen

‌au au au au (hrisv 'o') shift dabakar ` taip karen

au au au au (hrisv 'o' kee matra) ` taip karen

ऱ ऱ ऱ ऱ bandi 'r' shift dabakar r taip karen

llllshift dabakar l taip karen

l l shift dabakar v taip karen

ऩ ऩ shift dabakar n taip karen

y y shift dabakar y taip karen

urdoo ke aksharon ke lie nuk‍ta hai hi. is prakar ham dekhate hain ki devanagari-inskript kunjipatal bharat kee sabhi bhashaon ke varn chihnon ko devanagari lipi men vyakt karane men saksham hai.

isilie devanagari-inskript kunji patal ko apanana bharat kee rashtriy ekata ko lipi ekata aur bhasha ekata ke zarie sudridh karana hai.

adhyay 6

hindi softaveyar upakaran bharat sarakar ka mahatvapoorn kadam-

der aayad durast aayada

bharatiy bhashaon kee kanpyootari ke itihas men 15 aprail 2005 ka din aitihasik hai. is din bharat sarakar ne aisa kadam uthaya hai ki jisane tamil kanpyootari ke raste men aane vali sari badhaon aur samasyaon ka hal ek hi sidi men upalabdh kara diya. aur vah bhi bilkul muft, jise aap nissankoch apane mitron ko vitarit bhi kar sakate hain. yah sidi soochana praudyogikee men bharatiy bhashaon ke upayog ko badhava dene ke soochana praudyogikee vibhag aur sanchar evan soochana praudyogikee mantralay ke rashtriy prayas ka ek kadam tha. sanchar evan soochana praudyogikee mantree shree dayanidhi maran ke dimag kee upaj yah pariyojana sabhi bharatiy bhashaon ke softaveyar upakaranon ko muft aur mukt upalabdh karane kee hai. jab yah pariyojana poorn hogi to sabhi 22 bharatiy bhashaon men is prakar kee sidiyan jari ho chukee hongi.

is pariyojana ke agale charan ka din tha 20 joon 2005, jab rashtriy salahakar parishad kee adhyaksha aur bharatiy rashtriy kangres kee adhyaksha shreemati soniya gandhi ne "hindi softaveyar upakarann" namak sidi ka lokarpan kiya. is avasar par hamare pradhanamantree shree manamohan sinh bhi upasthit the. sanyukt pragatishil gathabandhan ke sajha nyoonatam karyakram ka ek mudda soochana praudyogikee ka vahaniy keemat par prasar karana bhi tha. is sidi par jari apane sandesh men shree dayanidhi maran ne kaha tha—"mujhe poora vishvas hai ki yadi kanpyootar ke labh aam janata tak pahunchane hon to isaka upayog unakee apani matribhasha men kiya jana anivary hai. isake lie aavashyak font aur bhasha ke softaveyar upakaran logon ko aasani se upalabdh hone chahie. mujhe ummid hai ki hindi bhasha se sanbandhit ye softaveyar upakaran tatha font nihshulk upalabdh hone se aam janata ko bhi kanpyootar ka prayog karane ke nae avasar milenge." aur yah nishchit hi ek nishtha aur samarpan ka mamala hai.

unhonne lokarpan ke avasar par kaha ki yah sasti aur sthaniy praudyogikee ko janata ko upalabdh karane kee disha men ek kadam hai. ve manate hain ki vyavasayik utpadon ka mahatv hai par ghareloo soochana praudyogikee upabhog ke vikas ke vartaman charan men font aur softaveyar upakaranon ko tab tak vitarit nahin kiya ja sakata jab tak ki ve muft aur mukt n hon. jo praudyogikee vahaniy hogi vahi bharatiy logon kee rachanatmak kshamata ko unmukt karane kee sanbhavana rakhegi. itane roopon men jinakee ham kalpana bhi nahin kar sakate, aur jaisa ki vikasit deshon ka anubhav raha hai.

is sidi ke jariye sabase achchhi bat yah ho rahi hai ki aam aadami ke hit men bhashayi praudyogikee ke prayogashalayi utpadon se upayogita utpadon men roopantaran ho raha hai. isase nishchay hi vyaktigat kanpyootaron kee khapat badhegi. jisase gramin kshetron men doorasanchar aur brodabaind kranti men teji aaegi. isase ee-shasan aur ee-shiksha men anuprayogon ka bhi vikas aur prasar hoga, jo sthaniy star par sarthak hoga.

is sidi men die gae font aur softaveyar upakaran bharat sarakar ke sentar for devalapament aof edavansd kanpyooting (si-dek) ne vikasit kie hain, jisamen niji kshetr ke modyoolar infotaik, saibaraspes maltimidiya, priya informetiks, aaeeaaeeaaeeti haidarabad, kaidagraf dizital sistam, si ke taiknolajiz, prolojiks aur softavyoo ne sahayog diya hai. yah sidi si-dek noeda dvara vitarit kee ja rahi hai. yadi aapako yah sidi nahin milati to ghabarane kee koee bat nahin hai. ye sabhi upakaran bharatiy bhashaon men praudyogikeey vikas (tidiaaeeel) kee vaibasait www.tdil.mit.gov.in se muft men daoonalod kie ja sakate hain. isake sath hi ek vaibasait http://www.ildc.gov.in ya http://www.ildc.in bhi jari kee gaee hai, jahan se aap is vishay kee apani samasyaon ka nirakaran kar sakate hain.

is sidi men kya hai?

yah sidi khulate hi pahale aapake aopareting sistam ko pahachanati hai, fir usake anusar utpadon ke menoo dikhati hai. udaharan ke lie, yadi aapaka aopareting sistam vindoz 98 hai to yah sidi oti-font aur draivar nahin dikhaegi. yadi aapaka aopareting sistam vindoz eksapi ya vindoz 2000 hai to yah sidi titi fonton ke sath oti font aur unake draivar bhi dikhaegi. aur yadi aapaka aopareting sistam linaks hai to yah sidi keval unhin softaveyaron ko dikhaegi jo linaks par chal sakate honge.

oti-font ya draivar lod karane se pahale vindoz men hindi ko sakriy karana jaroori hai. sakriy karane kee vidhi is prakar hai—

vindoz 2000 men hindi (bharatiy bhashaon) ko sakriy karane kee vidhi—

  1. 'Control Panel' men ja kar 'Regional Options' ko klik karen.
  2. General Tab men ja kar Indic ko chunen. fir Apply ko klik karen.
  3. fir Input Locale taib ko daba kar Add ko klik karen.
  4. apane pasand kee bhasha (yani hindi ya marathi, gujarati, panjabi, tamil koee bhi) aur kunjipatal (Hindi Traditional ya Inscript-Devnagari) ko chunen aur OK karen.
  5. 'Regional Options' ke OK par klik karen. kanpyootar ko dubara chalaen.
  6. kanpyootar ko dubara chalaen. stetas bar men ek chhota-sa EN likha dikhega. ise klik kar HI chunen aur hindi men taip karana shuroo kar den. jab angrezi men taip karana ho to punah EN chunen aur angrezi men taip karana shuroo kar den.

vindoz eksapi men hindi (bharatiy bhashaon) ko sakriy karane kee vidhi-

  1. 'Control Panel' men ja kar 'Date, Time, Language and Regional Options' par klik karen.
  2. isamen Regional and Language Options chunen.
  3. 'Language' taib ko klik karen tatha 'Install Files for Complex Script' namak boks ko chunen aur Apply batan ko daba den.
  4. yah vindoz eksapi kee sidi mangega, vindoz eksapi kee sidi ko sidi draiv men dalen tatha sansthapan hone den.
  5. ab 'Details' taib par klik karen tatha Settings taib men Add ko klik karen.
  6. apane pasand kee bhasha aur kee-bord ko chun kar OK karen.
  7. kanpyootar ko dubara chalaen. stetas bar men ek chhota-sa EN likha dikhega. ise klik karane par HI chunen aur hindi men taip karana shuroo kar den.

isaka difalt kunjipatal inskript hai, yadi aap remingtan / mainual taiparaitar kunjipatal ke abhyast hain, ya angreji dhvanyadharit / egjikyootiv kunjipatal ke abhyast hain to aapako is sidi men se jist oti-taiping tool lod karana hoga. jab aap hindi men taip karana chahen to jist oti-taiping tool ko sakriy karen, apana kunjipatal leaaoot (inskript, taiparaitar ya fonetik men ek koee ek) chunen aur togal kunji (kaipsalok, namalok ya skolalok men se koee ek) chunen, ise chhota karen aur togal kunji yani kaipsalok, namalok ya skolalok men se jo bhi aapane chuni hai, ko dabaen, aap ka angreji ka kunjipatal hindi men taip karana shuroo kar dega.

aaie, ab is sidi men upalabdh upakaranon par ham silasilevar bat karen—

1 hindi bhasha ke troo-taip fonts evan kee-bord draivar: 365 titief fonta

inskript, angreji aksharadharit (fonetik) aur taiparaitar leaaoot ke satha

yah maikrosoft aofis jaise vindoz anuprayogon men hindi men taip karane kee suvidha pradan karata hai. kisi bhi shabd sansadhak dvara nirmit kisi samagri ko dekhane tatha use mudrit karane ke lie titief fonton kee aavashyakata hoti hai. fonton kee shaili tatha aakar mudrit samagri tatha pradarshan ko padhane men aakarshak banate hain. is sidi men hindi bhasha ke sundar tarike se nirmit 365 titief font hain. titief men ek kunjipatal draivar kee aavashyakata hoti hai, at: sanbandhit kunjipatal draivar bhi upalabdh karae gae hain. is taiparaiting tool kee sahayata se deta ka nirman kisi bhi vindoz aadharit anuprayogon arthat vindoz 95, vindoz 98, vindoz 2000, vindoz eksapi men kiya ja sakata hai. yah inskript, taiparaitar aur fonetik tin tarah ke kunjipatal leaaoot upalabdh karata hai.

2 hindi bhasha ke lie troo-taip aadharit maltifont kee-bord injan:

vindoz 95/98, enati, 2000 aur isase behatara

yah maikrosoft aofis jaise vindoz anuprayogon men vibhinn font nirmataon ke fonts se hindi men taip karane kee suvidha pradan karata hai. isaka vikas saibaraspes maltimidiya li. ne kiya hai. isaka pratishthapan karake prayokta vibhinn tarah ke font yani ekabhashi, bahubhashi font vibhinn anuprayogon men tin kunjipatalon (dioee, taiparaitar aur egjikyootiv) men se kisi ka bhi upayog kar vividh troo taip fonton men hindi men deta taiyar kar sakate hain. maltifont injan kee ek hi jiyooaaee se samuchit injan evan fonton ka chayan is upakaran kee visheshata hai. deta ka nirman kisi bhi vindoj aadharit anuprayog men kiya ja sakata hai, udaharan ke lie emaes aofis 2000 men deta ka nirman karane ke lie vibhinn prakar ke kunjipatalon ka istemal kiya ja sakata hai jaise ki insakript, fonetik tatha taiparaitar jo kisi vishisht softaveyar men upalabdh karae gae hain. deta ka nirman vina98/vinaenati/vina2000/vinaeksapi aadi men kiya ja sakata hai.

3 hindi bhasha ke yoonikod aadharit opan taip fonts: 160

yoonikod men data nirman ke lie yah vibhinn opan taip font pradan karata hai.

jaisaki pahale bhi bataya gaya hai, yahi font vartaman aur bhavishy ka manak hain. isalie yadi aapake pas vindoz 2000 ya vindoz eksapi hai, ya koee any yoonikod samarthak aopareting sistam hai, aur jis anuprayog men aapako kam karana hai, vah yoonikod samarthak hai, to inhin fonton ka istemal karen. inhen instal karane se pahale oopar di gaee vidhi se apane aopareting sistam men hindi ko sakriy kar len. inaka istemal behad aasan aur sarvavyapi hai, intaranet par adhikansh samagri inhin fonton ka istemal karake taiyar kee jati hai. yadi aapane apani vindoz eksapi men hindi ko sakriy nahin kiya huaa hai, aur in font men taiyar koee samagri vaib ya ee-mel se aapako prapt hoti hai to bhi aap use padh paenge, sanrakshit kar paenge aur usaka print bhi le paenge, yani usaka manachaha istemal kar paenge. han, use sanpadit nahin kar paenge. sanpadan karane ke lie aapako keval apani vindoz men hindi ko sakriy bhar karana hai. abhi tak yoonikod men samanyatah ek font upalabdh tha—'mangal', vindoz eksapi ke sath 'eriyal yoonikod emaes' aaya, ek aadh font aur taiyar kie gae, parantu kul milakar yoonikod men fonton ka abhav tha. is sidi men 160 yoonikod aadharit opanataip font die gae hain. isase yah kami bhi ab door ho gaee hai. soochana-samagri ke nirman tatha pradarshan ke prayojan se in fonton ka vikas sundar roop men kiya gaya hai. font kee glifon ke aakaron kee ekaroopata ke karan font kee pathaniyata kafi adhik ho jati hai. font antarnirmit hain, jisaka tatpary yah hai ki is font ka prayog karake veb par soochana-samagri taiyar kee ja sakati hai aur kisi daunalod ke bina hi braujar men pradarshan ho sakata hai.

4 hindi bhasha ke yoonikod aadharit kee-bord draivar:

inskript, angreji aksharadharit (fonetik) aur taiparaitar leaaoot ke satha

yah vibhinn opan taip fonts men hindi men taip karane kee suvidha pradan karata hai. yadi aap yoonikod anuroopi opan taip fonton ka istemal karana chahate hain, aur aap pahale se hi hindi taiping taiparaitar kunjipatal men karate rahe hain ya aap keval angreji men taip karana janate hain aur aapaka kam samagri ka kabhi kabhar thoda bahut sanpadan karana bhar hai, aur aapako inskript kunjipatal men taip karana nahin aata, to ghabaraie mat, aapakee samasyaon ka sath jist-oti taiping tool ko instal karake ho jaega. yah inskript kunjipatal leaaoot ke sath taiparaitar leaaoot aur angreji dhvanyadharit kunjipatal kee suvidha bhi upalabdh karata hai. taiparaitar leaaoot yani mainual taiparaitar vala kunji patal jo kafi sare doosare softaveyaron aur fonton ke sath upalabdh hota hai, ab isakee sahayata se yoonikod ke sath bhi upalabdh ho gaya hai. isake atirikt angreji taiparaitar ke anuroop yani 'e' kunji dabane se 'a' taip ho aur 'ke' kunji dabane se 'k' taip ho, isake lie dhvanyadharit kunjipatal (fonetik kee-bord) vikasit kiya gaya hai, jist oti taiping tool ko instal karane par is kunjipatal ka istemal bhi kar sakenge.

5 parivartan-

hindi ke sabhi prakar ke fonts kod aur storej kodon ka parivartak (kanavartar)

yah ek font storej kod se doosare font storej kod men parivartan kee suvidha pradan karata hai. is softaveyar se prayokta ek kod se doosare kod men deta ka parivartan kar sakate hain. yah tekt fail tatha deta fail donon ka hi parivartan karata hai. yah jist karda/jist shel men nirmit purane deta ko bhi parivartit karata hai. nae softaveyar men parivartan (naya deta farmet) men parivartan ke lie prayokta ke pas mool softaveyar (purana deta farmet) hona jaroori nahin hai. yah printaron aur net par kam karane valon ke lie bahut hi upayogi softaveyar hai. ve isakee madad se ek font men aaee fail ko apane manachahe font men parivartit kar usaka upayog kar paenge aur apane grahak ko usake manachahe font men parivartit kar de paenge.

6 bharatiy opan aofis (opan sors) ka hindi sanskarann-

vindoz aur linaks ke lie shabdasansadhak, sarani-tool, prastuti-tool aur draing tool ke hindi sanskaran.

opanaaofis keval ek softaveyar hi nahin, ek aandolan hai. yah emaes aofis aur lotas smartasoot kee tarah ek poorn aofis paikej hai, yani isamen dastavej taiyar karane, talika banane, prastuti taiyar karane aur aankadakosh banane ke paikej samavisht hain. aur ek achchhi bat yah ki yah mukt softaveyar hai, yani nihshulk upalabdh hai aur yadi upayokta chahe to isamen manachahe parivartan bhi kar sakata hai, kyonki isake srot koot bhi sahajata se upalabdh hain, yani unake istemal par kopirait nahin hai. isake sath ek mahatvapoorn aur achchhi bat yah bhi hai ki yah pletafarm mukt hai, yani chahe aap vindoz eksapi par kam karate hon, ya linaks par, isamen taiyar fail donon hi aopareting sistamon par sahajata se khul jaegi. aur yadi aapake pas emaes aofis n ho to yah usakee failen bhi badi sahajata se khol dega, aur is sabake bavajood yah muft men upalabdh hai. badi prasannata kee bat hai ki aaeesiti risarch end trening sentar (indiya) dvara bharatiy opanaaofis samooh banaya gaya hai, jo is sabhi bharatiy bhashaon men upalabdh karana chahata hai, unakee vaibasait www.openoffice.org se ise nihshulk daoonalod kiya ja sakata hai. hindi men isaka vikas ho chuka hai. yani ab aapako dastavej taiyar karane ke lie angreji aana aavashyak nahin hai, isamen sabhi aadeshon ko hindi men diya huaa hai. udaharan ke lie, 'edit' ko 'sanpadan', 'kat' ko 'katen' aadi.

7 hindi men fayarafoks brauzar-

vindoz aur linaks ke lie hindi upayogakarta intarafes (yooaaee) brauzara

intaranet eksaplorar ka vikalp fayarafoks aapako kisi any braujar kee tulana men adhik teji se, adhik surakshit roop men tatha adhik kushalatapoorvak brauj karane men madad karata hai aur sath hi isake menoo bhi hindi men aate hain. fayarafoks aapakee pasandida seting v soochanaon ko import kar leta hai, at: aapako kisi prakar kee kshati nahin hoti hai. matr 4.7 emabi (vindoj) se, fayarafoks daunalod karane ke lie kisi dhime sampark par kuchh hi minaton tatha tej sampark par kuchh hi sekand ka samay leta hai. instalar aapaka set ap tej kar deta hai tatha naya izi transleshan sistam aapakee sabhi setings - fevarit, pasavard tatha any deta ko intaranet eksaplorar evan any braujaron se le leta hai aur is prakar aap tatkal intaranet par vibhinn soochanaen dekh sakate hain.

8 hindi men gem (GAIM) malti protokol sandeshavahak-

hindi men jieaaeeem malti protokol sandeshavahaka

yah linaks, biesadi, maikaoes eks, tatha vindoj ke lie ek malti protokol tatkal maisejing (aaeeem) klayant hai. yah eaaeeem tatha aaeesikyi (onskar protokol), emaesaen mesenjar, yahoo! aaeeaarasi, gadu-gadu, es aaee el si, grupavaij mesenjar, tatha jefir netavarkon ka anuroopi hai. gem ke prayokta kaee aaeeem netavarkon par kaee khaton men ek sath log kar sakate hain. isaka arth yah hai ki aap eoel insataint maisenjar par kisi mitr ke sath batachit kar sakate hain, jo yahoo maisenjar par apane mitr ke sath batachit kar raha hai, jo aaeeaarasi chainal par baitha hai aur sabhi ek hi samay par. gem vibhinn netavarkon kee anek visheshataon ka samarthan karata hai, jaise ki fail antarann, anupasthiti sandesh, taiping soochana, tatha emaesaen vindoj ke band hone kee soochana. yah isase bhi adhik kary karata hai tatha kaee anoothi visheshataen upalabdh karata hai.

9 hindi men kolanba ee-mel klaint evan laimavayar-

vindoz aur linaks ke lie hindi ee-mel klainta

yah java men likha gaya ek eemel klayant hai, jisamen vijard sahit prayokta-upayogi grafiy intarafes tatha antarrashtriyakaran ke samarthan upalabdh hain. yah aapakee utpadakata tatha sanvyavahar kee kshamata men vriddhi karane kee visheshataon se yukt ek shaktishali eemel prabandh upakaran hai.

10 chitrankan-

vindoz ke lie hindi ka osiaar softaveyara

yah hindi ke prishthon ko skain kar unhen Text men kanavart karata hai arthat sanpadan karane yogy roop men parivartit karata hai. hindi samachara_patron/hindi patrikaon aadi kee skaining karane tatha use tekst farmet men parivartit karane ke lie hindi osiaar ka prayog kiya jata hai. parivartit tekst fail ka sampadan kiya ja sakata hai tatha use aage kam men laya ja sakata hai. aautaput ko iskee/yoonikoda/aaratief farmet men parivartit kiya ja sakata hai. osiaar men aksharon kee pahachan karane ke lie ek anootha diesapi elgorithm hai. prashikshan madayool isaka ek vishesh gun hai. is prashikshan modayool se kisi bhi mudrit font farmet ko prashikshit kiya ja sakata hai aur is prakar utpad kee shuddhata men vriddhi ho jati hai.

11 aasan-

vindoz ke lie hindi-angrezi ka aasan taiping shikshaka

yah hindi v angrezi taiping sikhane kee suvidha pradan karata hai. yah softaveyar tach taiping sikhane kee ek bahut hi saral gaid hai. aaj, badi sankhya men softaveyar injiniyar tatha takanikee karmachari taiping ke lie keval do ungaliyon ka prayog karate hain. yah softaveyar aise logon kee suvidha ke lie taiyar kiya gaya hai jinhen taiping ka prashikshan lene ka avasar ya samay nahin mila. is softaveyar ka prayog karake 6 se 10 ghanton ke andar taiping ke mool tatv teji se sikh sakate hain. aapakee gati ke aadhar par, aap unnat adhyayon par ja sakate hain aur bahut hi kam samay men tach taiping men pravinnata prapt kar sakate hain. is softaveyar kee visheshata yah hai ki taiping ke abhyas ek hi softaveyar men do alag-alag prakar ke kunjipatalon ke lie upalabdh karae gae hain. aap yah paenge ki ye adhyay dvibhashi (angreji tatha hindi) men padhae jate hain. shiksharthi apani aavashyakata evan ruchi ke anusar taiping ke angreji tatha hindi mod ke bich kisi ka bhi chayan kar sakate hain.

12 shabdika-

vindoz ke lie angrezi-hindi shabdakosha

'shabdika' ek svatantr anuprayog hai jo bharat sarakar ke vaigyanik v paribhashik shabdavali aayog dvara taiyar angreji hindi prashasan kosh aur kanpyootar shabdavali tatha bharatiy rizarv baink dvara taiyar bainking shabdavali, adhiniyamon ke nam, padanam, vakyanshon ke hindi vikalp upalabdh karata hai. yah prayog men atyant sahaj hai. kisi shabdakosh men khojane kee bajae kanpyootar men shabdon ko dhoondhane ka yah ek sashakt upakaran hai.

14 angrezi hindi shabdakosh-

yah angrezi shabdon ke hindi samanarthi shabd dhoondhane kee suvidha pradan karata hai.

yah samany shabdavali ke hindi anuvad ko yoonikod men upalabdh karata hai. yah anuvadakon aur hindi lekhakon ke lie ek behad upayogi suvidha hai.

15 hindi vartani janchak-

yah hindi shabdon kee vartani kee janch karata hai. yah keval jist titi taiping upakaran ke jarie emaes vard men hindi men taiyar kee gaee samagri ka vartani parikshan karane men sahayata milati hai.

16 hindi lipyantaran tool-

vindoz ke lie hindi bhasha ka lipyantaran tool yani angreji (roman lipi) men taip samagri ko hindi (devanagari) men parivartit karane vala upakaran. yah opanaaofis ke hindi sanskaran ke sath lagakar kam karane vali suvidha hai. yah translitareshan ke lie angreji se bharatiy bhashaon men lipyantaran ka ek upakaran hai. is samay, yah angreji se chhah bharatiy bhashaon arthat hindi, tamil, telugoo, kannad, malayalam tatha gujarati men lipyantaran ka samarthan karata hai. lipyantaran ek aisi prakriya hai jisamen prayokta vastut: us bhasha men taip karata hai jisamen vah abhyast hai (hamare mamale men angreji) lekin shabd lakshit bhasha (hindi, tamil, aadi) ke hote hain.

17 hindi ke lie lekhan-vachak pranali (Text to Speech)-

yah hindi ke likhit vaky (taikst) ko vak (spich) men badalane kee suvidha pradan karata hai.

yah likhe hue shabdon ko bole hue shabdon men badalane vala anuprayog hai, jo hindi men likhe kisi path ko hindi men padh kar suna sakata hai. vah path sidhe hindi men taip kiya ho sakata hai ya kisi skainar dvara skain kee gaee kisi samagri ko aopatikal kairektar rikagnishan softaveyar kee madad se badala gaya path ho sakata hai. sankshep men, path-se-vak saftaveyar se kanpyootar bolane lagata hai. ise chalane ke lie kanpyootar men saund kard tatha spikar hone chahie.

18 hindi bhasha ka shabdanuvad tool-

angrezi se hindi men anuvada kevala eka seva ke roopa men www.ildc.in para upalabdha hai. hindi men shabdakosha kevala www.ildc.in para hi upalabdha hai.

aisa nahin hai ki hindi kanpyootari kee sabhi samasyaen sulajh gaee hain. parantu kanpyootar ka 90 pratishat kam jin softaveyaron ya upakaranon ke jariye hota hai, ve muft men upalabdh hain. bharat men printing ka sabase lokapriy softaveyar 'pejamekar' yoonikod ko samarthan nahin deta. parantu 'k‍varkaeksaprais' aur 'emaes pablishar' samarthan dete hain. par aise aur bhi saftaveyar honge jo abhi yoonikod ko samarthan pradan nahin karate honge. inake lie isi si-di men 'jist titi taiping tool' upakaran diya hai. isakee sahayata se ham iskee kod men samagri ka mudran kar sakate hain. yah zaroor hai ki hamen keval jist-titi font hi istemal karane chahie kyonki ve iskee manak par aadharit hain. in fonton ke muft aur mukt hone ke karan aap inhen aasani se kanoonan vitarit bhi kar sakate hain.

isalie yah karana atishayokti n hoga ki yah lokarpan bharatiy soochana praudyogikee ke svapn ko poora karane kee disha men ek mahatvapoorn kadam hai, yah mahan apekshaon ko jagata hai. yah nishchay hi vishv gyan hasil karane aur sthaniy jarooraton ke mutabik gyan ko anukoolit karane aur rachane ko prerit karega. hindi ka prayog natakeey dhang se vyaktigat kanpyootaron kee khapat ko badhaega, hindi samaj ko praudyogikee-mitr banane men sahayata pradan karega.

(samapt)

tag: hindi computing, computing in hindi, hindi computing - problems and solutions, hindi enabled software and hardware, software programming in hindi, ved prakash

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